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Some geological and environmental problems become more challenging than ever before. The integration between research disciplines, tools, data, and activities provides a significant approach to address these challenging problems, supports building stronger research outcomes, efficiently educates researchers and students, and supports publishing and employment goals. The Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and GIS Data and Techniques: Environmental, Geological, and Hydrogeological Applications training program, offered by Dr. Ahmed’s lab, is designed to prepare applicants for applying advanced geophysical, remote sensing, and Geographic Information System (GIS) data and techniques to various geosciences applications with special emphasis on environmental and hydrogeologic applications. This training program includes different modules that incorporate lectures and hands-on exercises on different geophysical methods and data, remote sensing satellites, images, and technologies, and integration of remote sensing data with other relevant geological, geophysical, hydrogeological datasets in a GIS environment. Participants completing this training program will be fully prepared to apply the acquired skills to different Earth sciences applications and real-world geological, hydrogeological, and environmental problems. Upon completion of this training program, the participant will receive a certificate from the training coordinator indicating the satisfactory completion of the training module(s) at a state of the art facility under leading professionals in the field.


Module (1): GIS Fundamentals and Geological Applications

Geographic Information System (GIS) provides a vehicle for capturing, storing, querying, analyzing, and displaying geospatial datasets. This module will be mainly dedicated to understanding the basics behind GIS and exploring the use of GIS technologies to manage, analyze, and display of multidimensional, geological, geophysical, and environmental datasets. Hands-on exercise on the geological and hydrological applications of GIS will be also presented.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Benefits of using GIS in geology
    • Geodatabase
    • Geoprocessing
    • Geovisualization
  • Building blocks of ArcGIS
    • ArcGIS Desktop
    • ArcGIS Engine
    • ArcGIS Server
  • Coordinate systems and projections
  • Desktop ArcGIS components
    • ArcMap
    • ArcCatalog
    • ArcToolbox
    • ArcScene
    • ArcGlobe
  • ArcGIS extensions
    • 3D analyst
    • Spatial analyst
    • Geostatistical analyst
  • Geospatial data models
    • Vector data
    • Raster data
  • Applications of GIS in geology and hydrogeology
  • Hands-on exercises

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Utilize ArcGIS to import spatial and non-spatial databases, and integrate, manage, and analyze data to produce information for decision making.
  • Use ArcGIS tools, including ArcMap, ArcCatalog, and ArcToolbox.
  • Produce professional map layouts.

Module (2): Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Geological Applications

The acquisition of information about an object/phenomenon without making a physical contact with the object is defined as remote sensing. This module introduces the basic principles behind remote sensing including, but are not limited to, the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiations and their interactions with Earth’s surface and atmosphere, satellite missions, sensors, orbits, and applications, and how to process and interpret remote sensing datasets. This module also covers the use of remote sensing data and methodology to extract compositional (i.e., lithologic) and structural information from remote sensing data.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Definitions
  • Electromagnetic radiations
  • Interactions of electromagnetic waves with Earth’s surface and atmosphere
  • Acquisition of electronic images (whisk-broom; push-broom)
  • The format of electronic imagery (raster; vector)
  • Spectral signature
  • Resolution
    • Spatial
    • Spectral
    • Radiometric
    • Temporal
  • Remote sensing systems
    • Orbits (polar; sun-synchronous)
    • Moderate to fine-scale coverage (Landsat; SPOT; ASTER; IRS; IKONOS; ORBVIEW)
    • Broad to moderate-scale coverage (AVHRR; MODIS; SeaWIFS; MERIS; GRACE)
  • Spectroscopy of rocks and minerals
  • Spectral signature
  • Image classifications
  • Geologic mapping using remote sensing images:
    • Landsat TM
    • ASTER
  • Applications of remote sensing

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Explore the benefits of applying remote sensing data and techniques in addressing geological problems.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the differences between remote sensing systems and their characteristics and limitations.
  • Competently process, interpret, and evaluate remotely sensed images.
  • Extract lithological and structural data from remote sensing images.

Module (3): Map Projections, Transformations, and Spatial Interpolation

This module covers the basic types of map projection and transformation as well as the different types of map distortion associated with changing projection and/or datum.  The module also covers different interpolation mechanisms that could be used in GIS or any other mapping software.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Coordinate Systems
    • Geographic
    • Cartesian
    • Polar
  • Datum
  • Basic types of map projections
    • Conformal
    • Equivalent
    • Equidistant
    • Azimuthal
  • Types of azimuthal projections:
    • Planer Projections
    • Secant Projections
    • Simple Conic Projection
    • Cylindrical Projection
  • Map Distortion
  • Classifications of interpolations
    • Global & Local interpolation
    • Exact & Inexact interpolation
    • Deterministic and Stochastic interpolation
  • First-order trend surface
  • Higher-order trend surface
  • Theissen polygons
  • Density estimation
  • Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation
  • Radial Basis Functions (RBF) splines
  • Kriging
    • Semivariance & semivariogram
    • Ordinary
    • Simple
    • Indicator
    • Universal
    • Probability

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Explore differences between different map projections.
  • Use ArcGIS to project raster (geologic map, geophysical maps and cross sections, etc.) and vector (wells, faults, etc.) data.
  • Select the appropriate interpolation technique and assess the interpolation accuracy.

Module (4): Mapping Land Subsidence using GIS and Remote Sensing

Interferometry is a geodetic technique that calculates the interference pattern caused by the difference in phase between two images acquired by a space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system at two distinct times. InSAR makes use of the difference in phase between two radar scenes to determine precise differences in range to a target and to subsequently determine the exact surface location, and subtle changes in topography. The module covers the use of radar data to map areas affected by land subsidence and quantify the subsidence rates. This module will specifically cover radar remote sensing, principles of radar interferometry, limits of interferometric measurements, and constructing and improving interferograms.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Electromagnetic waves
  • Radar sensors
    • Passive
    • Active
  • Polarization
  • Synthetic Aperture Systems (SAR)
  • Doppler Effect
  • Resolution
    • Range
    • Azimuth
  • Radar equation
  • Radar backscatter
  • Radar interferometry
  • Interferograms generation
    • Baseline estimation,
    • Interferogram generation,
    • Coherence and adaptive filtering,
    • Phase unwrapping,
    • Orbital refinement,
    • Phase to height conversion and geocoding, and
    • Phase to displacement conversion.

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Read, process, and explore radar images.
  • Use radar interferometry and define limits of interferometric measurements.
  • Construct and improving interferograms using different radar images (i.e., ENVISAT, ERS) applying two- pass, three-pass, SBAS, permanent scatterer techniques.
  • Apply interferometry to quantify land deformation.

Module (5): GRACE Basics and Hydrological Applications

The Gravity Recovery and Climatic Experiment (GRACE) is the most interdisciplinary satellite mission that has been extensively used to study surface processes involving hydrologic, oceanic, and cryospheric water mass movement and redistribution. The participant will learn the basics of GRACE data, how to process the GRACE solutions, and how to apply GRACE data for hydrological and environmental problems.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • GRACE mission
    • What is GRACE?
    • GRACE partners
    • GRACE instrumentations
    • GRACE mission concept
  • GRACE data products
    • GRACE data flow
    • GRACE data centers
    • GRACE data formats
    • GRACE data levels
    • How to access GRACE data?
  • Processing of GRACE data
    • Spherical Harmonics
    • Spectral filtering (Destripping)
    • Spatial filtering (Gaussian smoothing)
    • Mascons solutions
  • Generating GRACE products
    • Standard deviation images
    • Amplitude of annual cycle images
    • Phase of annual cycle images
    • Trend images
    • Time series
    • Error analysis
  • GRACE and Land Surface Models
    • GLDAS model
    • CLM model
  • Spatial and temporal correlation of GRACE and other data sets
    • Spatial correlations (trends, amplitude, phase)
    • Temporal correlations (time series)

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Explore the basics of GRACE mission.
  • Read, visualize, and process GRACE data.
  • Utilize GRACE data to address geological, hydrogeological, and environmental problems.

Module (6): Rainfall-Runoff Modeling using SWAT

This module focuses on the theory and application of hydrologic modeling using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. This module provides the theoretical basis on which the SWAT model is constructed, as well as practical and useful applications of the SWAT model.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Theoretical background
    • Modeling theoretical background
    • SWAT model
    • SWAT inputs and outputs
    • SWAT applications in different environments
  • SWAT Inputs
    • Handouts related to the download and processing of the DEM
    • Handouts related to generating stream networks from DEM
    • Handouts related to SWAT land cover datasets
    • Familiarization with SWAT climatic inputs (i.e. rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind Speed) and their appropriate formatting.
  • SWAT simulation
  • Learning how to run a SWAT model from the creation of the project to the obtaining of the final outputs.
  • Run SWAT using rainfall data from:
    • SWAT database
    • TRMM
    • Rain gauges
  • SWAT outputs
    • How to read SWAT outputs?
  • SWAT model calibration
    • Familiarization with the general concepts and objectives of calibration
    • Learning the appropriate tools for the calibration of a model in ArcSWAT

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Use the SWAT model.
  • Prepare different SWAT inputs.
  • Calibrate and validate SWAT outputs.
  • Read and interpret SWAT outputs.
  • Use SWAT to model the partitioning of rainfall in different geologic and climatic settings.

Module (7): Gravity and Magnetic: Basics and Applications

Gravity and magnetic methods provide a cost-effective approach to map the subsurface geology and structures. This module provides basics of gravity and magnetic techniques. Data acquisition, processing, and interpretation techniques are also covered. The utilization of gravity and magnetic methods in addressing geological problems is also provided.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • Magnetic field
    • Magnetic poles, flux, force, induction, field strength, and permeability
    • Hysteresis Curve
  • Induced and remnant magnetization
  • Magnetic susceptibility (Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, and Ferrimagnetic)
  • Origin and elements of Earth’s magnetic field
    • Geographic and magnetic axis and meridian
    • Declination and inclination
    • International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF)
  • Resonance magnetometers (Proton free-precession, Alkali vapor)
  • Field magnetic survey
    • Survey types & procedures
    • Noise and corrections (e.g., diurnal correction)
  • Processing for field magnetic data
    • Reduction to the pole (RTP)
    • Forward and inverse modeling
    • Depth estimation techniques
    • Regional and residual anomalies
    • Upward and downward continuations
    • Field derivatives, Euler’s Deconvolution, and Analytic signal
  • Interoperation of magnetic data
    • Qualitative and quantitative
  • Applications of geomagnetic methods
  • Case studies
  • Gravity field
  • Newton Laws
  • Gravitational acceleration
  • Theoretical Sea Level Gravity (TSLG)
  • Densities of rocks and minerals
  • Gravimeters (relative and absolute)
  • Field gravity survey
    • Survey types & procedures
  • Reduction for field gravity data
    • Drift correction
    • Tide correction
    • Latitude correction
    • Free-air correction
    • Bouguer correction
    • Terrain correction
    • Eotvos correction
  • Gravity anomalies
    • Free-air anomaly
    • Simple Bouguer anomaly
    • Complete Bouguer anomaly
  • Density determination techniques
  • Processing for field gravity data
    • Forward and inverse modeling
    • Depth estimation techniques
    • Regional and residual anomalies
    • Upward and downward continuations
    • Field derivatives, Euler’s deconvolution, and analytic signal
  • Interoperation of gravity data
    • Qualitative and quantitative
  • Applications of gravity methods
  • Case studies

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Conduct gravity and magnetic surveys in the field.
  • Process and visualize gravity and magnetic data.
  • Interpret gravity and magnetic data.
  • Use gravity and magnetic data to address different geological problems.

Module (8): Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR): Basics and Applications

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a nondestructive geophysical method that uses electromagnetic radar pulses to image the subsurface. This module provides basics of GPR technique. Data acquisition, processing, and interpretation techniques are also covered. The utilization of the GPR method in addressing environmental, hydrogeological, and geological problems is also provided.

Period:

  • Two weeks (condensed module)
  • Four weeks (full module)

Cost:

  • Please contact me.

Contents:

  • GPR basic principles
    • Maxwell’s equations
    • Constitutive equations
    • Material properties
  • Wave nature of electromagnetic fields
    • Wave properties
    • GPR source near an interface
    • Reflection, refraction, and transmission at interfaces
    • Resolution and zone of influence
    • Scattering attenuation
  • Signal Measurement
    • Time ranges and bandwidth
    • Center frequency
    • GPR signal acquisition
    • Characterizing system response
    • Recording dynamic range
    • Antennas
    • Antenna directivity
    • Antenna shielding
  • GPR surveys
    • Sampling criteria
    • Common-offset reflection survey
    • CMP and WRR
  • Data analysis and interpretation
    • Frequency filtering
    • Time gain
    • Deconvolution
    • Migration
    • Topographic correction
    • Two-dimensional and three-dimensional data visualization
  • GPR applications
  • Case studies

Participants will develop software-oriented skills on how to:

  • Conduct GPR surveys in the field.
  • Process and visualize GPR data.
  • Interpret GPR data.
  • Use GPR surveys to address different geological, environmental, and hydrogeological, problems.